Amnesty International Germany organized a solidarity rally for the protesters in Iran in front of the German Reichstag on 23th November 2022.

Iran: Risk of unjust protest-related executions

At least eight people in Iran face the death penalty for their involvement in the 2022 “Woman Life Freedom” uprising. Nine others have already been executed after unfair trials. Authorities have violated their rights to a fair trial and subjected many to torture, including beatings, electric shocks, and sexual violence. Concerns are growing about more protest-related executions as the execution rate continues to rise.

Here’s what you can do:

Write to the Head of the Judiciary urging the Iranian authorities to:

  • Quash all convictions and death sentences from the protests. Stop seeking new death sentences.
  • Ensure fair trials for anyone charged with a recognizable criminal offense, without using the death penalty.
  • Release immediately and unconditionally all those convicted, sentenced to death, indicted, or investigated solely for exercising their rights to freedom of expression, association, and peaceful assembly.
  • Allow detained individuals access to their families and lawyers. Protect them from further torture and investigate all torture allegations. Bring those responsible to justice in fair trials.
  • Let independent observers attend capital trials and visit those on death row related to the protests.
  • Immediately establish a moratorium on executions with the aim of abolishing the death penalty

Write to:

Head of judiciary, Gholamhossein Mohseni Ejei

c/o Embassy of Iran to the European Union,

Avenue Franklin Roosevelt No. 15,

1050 Bruxelles,


Salutation: Dear Mr. Gholamhossein Mohseni Ejei,

Unjust trials and forced confessions

The trials of individuals for capital offenses connected to the “Woman Life Freedom” uprising have been deeply flawed. Authorities have denied these individuals access to lawyers during investigations and have blocked independently appointed lawyers from trial hearings and accessing case files. The authorities have fast-tracked these cases, using torture-induced “confessions” to secure convictions.

Amnesty International has documented torture and other ill-treatment of five out of the eight individuals sentenced to death. Reza (Gholamreza) Rasaei, for example, endured electric shocks, suffocation, suspension, severe beatings, and sexual violence to force his “confessions.” Despite clear evidence of torture, a Kermanshah province court sentenced him to death for “murder” in October 2023, and the Supreme Court upheld this decision in January 2024. He has now exhausted all legal options to halt his execution.

Similarly, Mojahed (Abbas) Kourkouri was sentenced to death by a Revolutionary Court in Ahvaz in April 2023. His trial was grossly unfair, relying on torture-tainted “confessions” obtained during his enforced disappearance.

Death sentences for protest participation

Among the eight individuals sentenced to death, Toomaj Salehi was sentenced in April 2024 for his participation in the uprising and social media posts condemning the authorities. Mahmoud Mehrabi, arrested in February 2023 and re-arrested in March 2023, was sentenced to death for “corruption on earth” by a Revolutionary Court in Esfahan. His death sentence was connected to his support for the uprising and his criticism of local officials.

Manouchehr Mehman Navaz was sentenced to death in November 2022 for allegedly setting fire to a state building during protests. His trial lasted only two weeks and was grossly unfair.

Amnesty International has also identified at least five other individuals at risk of execution: Kamran Soltani, Mohammad Farji, Pouria Javaheri, Raouf Sheikh Maroufi, and Reza Arabpour. The number of people at similar risk is believed to be higher.

Rising execution rates

The authorities have already executed at least nine people in connection with the uprising after unfair trials and torture allegations. Among them was Mohammad Ghobadlou, a 23-year-old protester with a mental disability, executed on 23 January 2024 despite a Supreme Court order for a retrial.

Following the “Woman Life Freedom” uprising, the Iranian authorities have increased their use of the death penalty to instill fear and maintain control. In 2023, there were at least 853 executions, a 48% increase from 2022. Seven of these were protest-related, and the death penalty disproportionately impacted Iran’s oppressed Baluchi ethnic minority, who accounted for 20% of all executions despite being only 5% of the population.

The execution spree has continued into 2024, with at least 250 executions carried out by 20 May 2024, including against ethnic minorities and dissidents.

Please take action as soon as possible until July 17, 2024! The UA will be duly updated should there be the need for further action.